An Introduction to Lithium Batteries

Until the 1990s, nickel-cadmium (NiCad) batteries were almost the only option for rechargeable batteries. The main problem with this device is its high temperature coefficient. This means that the efficiency of the cell drops significantly when heated.

In addition, cadmium, one of the main elements of the cell, is expensive and harmful to the environment (it is also used in thin film panels). You can also buy Sony 18650 battery via

Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium ion emerged as competitors to NiCad in the 1990s. Since then, a number of amazing technologies have hit the market. Among these, lithium-ion batteries are promising candidates for a variety of applications.

Lithium-ion cells have been used in hundreds of applications including electric cars, pacemakers, laptops and military microgrids. They are very care and energy efficient. Unfortunately, commercial lithium-ion cells have some serious drawbacks.


Batteries are electrochemical devices. This means that it converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Rechargeable batteries can be turned in the opposite direction using a reversible reaction. Each cell consists of a positive electrode called cathode and a negative electrode called anode.

Early lithium batteries were high temperature cells with a liquid lithium cathode and a liquid sulfur anode. This thermal battery operates at a temperature of about 400 degrees Celsius and was first sold commercially in the 1980s.

Lithium-ion batteries typically have a graphite-carbon anode containing Li + ions and a metal oxide cathode. The electrolyte consists of lithium salts (LiPF6, LiBF4, LiClO4) which are dissolved in an organic solvent such as ether.